Part1 - Part2

comp.protocols.snmp SNMP FAQ Part 1 of 2

From: (Tom Cikoski)
Newsgroups: comp.protocols.snmp,comp.answers,news.answers
Subject: comp.protocols.snmp SNMP FAQ Part 1 of 2
Supersedes: <7hejnm$hil$>
Followup-To: comp.protocols.snmp
Date: 11 Jul 1999 14:45:19 -0400
Organization: The SNMP WorkShop/Panther Digital Corp, Danbury, Connecticut USA
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Summary: Introduction to SNMP & comp.protocols.snmp newsgroup
Keywords: SNMP FAQ
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Version: 2.44

                    PART 1 of 2

         FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ

          Simple Network Management Protocol

This 2-part document is provided as a service by and for the readers
and droogs of Internet USENET news group comp.protocols.snmp and may be
used for research and educational purposes only. Any commercial
use of the text may be in violation of copyright laws under 
the terms of the Berne Convention. My lawyer can whup your lawyer.

Anthology Edition Copyright 1999, Thomas R. Cikoski, All Rights Reserved
 Please feel free to EMail corrections, enhancements, and/or
 additions to the Reply-To address, above.  Your input will
 receive full credit in this FAQ unless you request otherwise.

As a result of the abuses of EMail now taking place on the
Internet, we have a policy of NOT providing the EMail address
of individual contributors in these postings. We will continue
continue to provide EMail addresses of commercial contributors
unless requested not to.

Neither the contributors nor the editor of this FAQ are responsible
for the stability or accuracy of any URL, Web site address, or
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correction. If, however, a particular URL disappears from the Web
there is not much we can do about it.

Please also visit our cousin newsgroup
New this month: 
> Miscellaneous corrections submitted by readers.
Note on host names and addresses: please email me with any changes
to URLs, host names or IP addresses. The MIT host rtfm has an autoresponder
which always replies to postings with an incorrect IP.  It would be
nice if every host had that, but they don't, so I need your assistance.  

1.00.00 FAQ PART 1 of 2:            IN THIS DOCUMENT

1.01.00 --General
1.01.01 What is the purpose of this FAQ?
1.01.02 Where can I Obtain This FAQ?
1.01.99 This FAQ Stinks!

1.10.00 --General Questions about SNMP and SNMPv1
1.10.01 What is SNMP?
1.10.02 How do I develop and use SNMP technology?
1.10.10 How does an Agent know where to send a Trap?
1.10.15 How can I remotely manage community strings?

1.11.00 --RFC
1.11.01 What is an RFC?
1.11.02 Where can I get RFC text?

1.12.00 --SNMP Reference
1.12.01 What books are there which cover SNMP?
1.12.02 What periodicals are heavily oriented to SNMP?
1.12.03 What classes are available on the topic of SNMP?
1.12.04 What email discussion groups are available for SNMP?
1.12.05 What trade shows cater to SNMP?
1.12.06 What SNMP product User Groups are available?
1.12.07 Where can I find SNMP-related material on WWW?
1.12.08 What related mailing lists exist?
1.12.20 What related newsgroups exist?

1.13.00 --Miscellaneous
1.13.01 SNMP and Autodiscovery
1.13.02 SNMP Traps
1.13.03 SNMP and/versus The Web
1.13.04 SNMP and Java
1.13.05 SNMP and CORBA
1.13.06 SNMP and Visual Basic

1.20.00 --General Questions about SNMPv2
1.20.01 What is SNMPv2?
1.20.02 What is SNMPv2*/SNMPv1+/SNMPv1.5?
1.20.03 What is SNMPv2c?
1.20.04 What the heck other SNMPv's are there?

1.22.00 --General Questions about SNMPv3
1.22.01 What is SNMP V3?

1.30.00 --RMON
1.30.01 What is RMON?
1.30.02 RMON Standardization Status
1.30.03 RMON Working Group.
1.30.04 Joining the RMON Working Group Mailing List 
1.30.05 Historical RMON Records
1.30.06 RMON Documents
1.30.07 RMON2

1.40.00 --ISODE
1.40.01 What is ISODE?
1.40.02 Where can I get ISODE?
1.40.03 Is there an ISODE/SNMP mailing list?

1.50.00 --Using SNMP to Monitor or Manage
1.50.01 How do I calculate utilization using SNMP?
1.50.02 What are Appropriate Operating Thresholds?
1.50.03 Are MIBs available to monitor application traffic?

2.00.00 FAQ PART 2 of 2:            NOT IN THIS DOCUMENT

2.01.00 --CMIP
2.01.01 What is CMIP?
2.01.02 What books should I read about CMIP?
2.01.03 A CMISE/GDMO Mailing List
2.01.04 What is OMNIPoint?

2.02.00 --Other Network Management Protocols
2.02.01 What alternatives exist to SNMP?

2.10.00 --SNMP Software and Related Products
2.10.01 Where can I get Public Domain SNMP software?
2.11.01 Where can I get Proprietary SNMP software?
2.12.01 Where can I get SNMP Shareware?
2.13.01 Miscellaneous FTP and WWW Sources
2.14.01 What CMIP software is available?
2.15.01 SNMP and Windows NT/95
2.16.01 More About CMU SNMP Software
2.17.01 Miscellaneous SNMP-related Products
2.18.01 SNMP and OS/2
2.18.02 SNMP and SCO Unix
2.18.03 SNMP and Linux
2.18.04 SNMP and AS/400
2.20.01 SNMP++

2.30.00 --The SNMP MIB (Management Information Base)
2.30.01 What is a MIB?
2.30.02 What are MIB-I and MIB-II
2.30.03 How do I convert SNMP V1 to SNMP V2 MIBs?
2.30.04 How do I convert SNMP V2 to SNMP V1 MIBs?
2.30.05 What are enterprise MIBs?
2.30.06 Where can I get enterprise MIBs?
2.31.01 MIB Compiler Topics
2.32.01 How can I get ______ from the _____ MIB?
2.35.01 How can I register an Enterprise MIB?
2.35.02 Where can I find Enterprise Number Assignments?
2.37.01 How Do I Create a Table Within a Table?
2.37.05 How Do I Reset MIB Counters via SNMP?
2.37.07 How can I change a published MIB?
2.38.01 How unique must MIB variable names be?

2.40.00 --SMI
2.40.01 What is the SMI?
2.40.02 What is SMIv2?
2.40.03 Table Indexing and SMI

2.45.00 --ASN.1
2.45.01 What is ASN.1?
2.45.02 Why is ASN.1 not definitive for SNMP?

2.50.00 --BER
2.50.01 How is the Integer value -1 encoded?
2.50.02 What is the Maximum Size of an SNMP Message?

2.98.00 Appendix A. Glossary
2.99.00 Appendix B. Acknowledgements & Credits

1.00.00 FAQ PART 1 of 2:

1.01.00 --General
SUBJECT: What is the purpose of this FAQ?

  This FAQ is to serve as a guide to the resources known to
  be available for helping you to understand SNMP, SNMPv2,
  and their related technologies.  OSI/CMIP is touched on
  briefly as well because we're fair-minded folk.
  There is NO INTENT that this be a one-stop SNMP tutorial.
  There is NO INFERENCE that this is an authoritative or
  official document of any kind. What you see is what you get.
  You WILL need to read the books listed herein, maybe even
  some of the RFCs.  You may wish to take a class as well.
  Just think of this as your "tourist guide book."

SUBJECT: Where Can I Obtain This FAQ?

  This FAQ is available on the WWW at: (both text and HTML formats are available)
[Note: above site reported "way out of date"]

See also:

You can also find the most recent Web posting via [formerly "dejanews"]

and, last but not least, you can use your favorite search
engine such as

This FAQ is officially archived (as with all "licensed" FAQs) at [] under /pub/usenet/news.answers
as snmp-faq/part1 &/part2, or under /pub/usenet/comp.protocols.snmp
as its own self (the only files in that directory). Use
anonymous ftp to retrieve or send e-mail to 
      "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources"
for instructions on FTP via e-mail.

SUBJECT: This FAQ Stinks!

A concerned reader writes:

"The SNMP FAQ contains incorrect sometimes outdated information and
it might therefore cause more questions than it answers. What is
your policy with regard to corrections? It sometimes looks that you
are just adding corrections and not removing the incorrect text.
This makes the FAQ difficult to use and it keeps incorrect stuff
around, which again causes confusion."

"There is also an issue with relationship to other documents. For
example, the SimpleTimes contains an up-to-date list of RFCs related
to SNMP. The FAQ contains several more or less correct and outdated
lists. I think it would be useful in cases like this to just refer
to a `reliable' source instead of trying to include information which
is not maintained."

Editor's note: Our concerned reader is perceptive. We rely on the good
will and support of our readers to notice omissions, commissions and
deprecations in the FAQ, although we do try and update RFC lists from
time to time. We will act on any notice from you that something ought
to be changed. Please send me your corrections.

URLs change often and we don't have the time to check them routinely.
We also publish the large personal collections of several contributors,
some of which offer conflicting details. That's the way it is with
tribal documents such as this. If any error in this FAQ causes you to
waste or loose precious time then you probably expected too much to
begin with. Please use it with our good wishes and this disclaimer.

1.10.00 --General Questions about SNMP and SNMPv1

  The Simple Network Management Protocol is a protocol for
  Internet network management services.  It is formally
  specified in a series of related RFC documents.

    (Some of these RFCs are in "historic" or "informational" status)
     RFC 1089 - SNMP over Ethernet
     RFC 1140 - IAB Official Protocol Standards
     RFC 1147 - Tools for Monitoring and Debugging TCP/IP
                Internets and Interconnected Devices
                [superceded by RFC 1470]
     RFC 1155 - Structure and Identification of Management
                Information for TCP/IP based internets.
     RFC 1156 (H)- Management Information Base Network
                Management of TCP/IP based internets
     RFC 1157 - A Simple Network Managment Protocol
     RFC 1158 - Management Information Base Network
                Management of TCP/IP based internets: MIB-II
     RFC 1161 (H)- SNMP over OSI
     RFC 1187 - Bulk Table Retrieval with the SNMP
     RFC 1212 - Concise MIB Definitions
     RFC 1213 - Management Information Base for Network Management
                of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-II
     RFC 1215 (I)- A Convention for Defining Traps for use with the SNMP
     RFC 1224 - Techniques for Managing Asynchronously-Generated Alerts
     RFC 1270 (I)- SNMP Communication Services
     RFC 1303 (I)- A Convention for Describing SNMP-based Agents
     RFC 1470 (I)- A Network Management Tool Catalog
     RFC 1298 - SNMP over IPX (obsolete, see RFC 1420)
     RFC 1418 - SNMP over OSI
     RFC 1419 - SNMP over AppleTalk
     RFC 1420 - SNMP over IPX (replaces RFC 1298)

[EDITOR'S NOTE: RFC's for SNMPv2 and SNMPv3 are under their
 respective headings.]
"Just a reminder that if you are new to SNMP (or know someone who is)
you might want to check out my Web page at:"

Tyler Vallillee

A good overview of SNMP can be found at:

You'll find a 30-page article that provides a high-level but detailed overview
of SNMP, including philosophy, applications, protocol description, useful MIB
objects, and a description of ASN.1 syntax.

This should get you started.


SUBJECT: How do I develop and use SNMP technology?

To deploy and use SNMP technology for management involves
many steps.
If you are a device vendor you need to:
1) decide what aspects of your products you want to
   be managable via SNMP
2) select the standard MIBs to implement (and the objects/traps
   within them to implement)
3) create proprietary MIB modules containing objects and traps
   for the management areas not covered by standard MIBs
4) Select an SNMP agent toolkit vendor
5) put instrumentation in your devices
6) following the directions from the SNMP toolkit vendor, create
   access routines (which some SNMP toolkit vendors call method
   routines) to get and set the values of from your instrumentation
7) Select an SNMP agent test package, and test your agent
8) Select an SNMP management API library
9) Write SNMP applications to manage your device

If you are an end-user, you need to:
1) determine what SNMP management capability that you have
   in your current devices
2) determine the SNMP management capability that is available
   in similar devices from other vendors (in case you need to
   upgrade or change)
3) determine what you want to accomplish with management
4) find off the self management packages that provide the
   management functions you want
5) possibly upgrade or replace your current devices with one
   that are managable with the package you chose.
6) implement additional management functions using scripting
7) implement additional management functions using custom written
   code using a purchased off the self SNMP management API library
8) configure your agents and applications to talk to each other.

David T. Perkins

SUBJECT: How does an Agent know where to send a Trap?

I've noticed on the comp.protocols.snmp mailing list that the question
"how does an agent know where to send traps" (short answer is "its
implementation specific", long answer is, indeed, long, but has been
well answered numerous times) is, indeed, a Frequently Asked Question.
Any chance of adding it to your quite impressive FAQ posting?

T. Max Devlin

[Editor's Note: What T. Max is getting at here is that the trap
 destination IP address is not represented in MIB-II, so how can
 the agent know what it is? The answer is that most agents require
 an external configuration process to take place before they can
 be put into service, and that is how the IP address, among other
 interesting parameters, is set in the agent. How this setup is
 actually done varies among agent developers.]

SUBJECT: How can I remotely manage community strings?

Paul Nye wrote:

>I'm looking for a utility that enables me to change community names on
>multiple devices from a single management console.
>For example, provided I have the correct SU password, I would like to be
>able to identify a subnet or IP address range and the utility would query
>any SNMP aware device in the range, test whether the SU/community names are
>the same and if so, replace the SU password with one of my choice.

Because the methodology for setting community strings is not
standardized, every type of device/agent version may have a
different mechanism for handling this chore.  Therefore, there
are no "single console" products for setting community strings.
For this to be feasible, you would have to be able to
differentiate every agent type, and know how that particular
vendor/system/agent handles it.

T. Max Devlin

1.11.00 --RFC

SUBJECT: What is an RFC?
  The letters stand for the title Request For Comment, which
  is the initial stage in the process for creating Internet
  standards.  RFCs go through several stages of review and
  refinement before they are adopted as final by the Internet
SUBJECT: Where can I get RFC text?


Ohio State University has an extensive set of RFCs in html (browser)
format.  To see RFC 9898 (for example), use the following URL:
                           Put actual RFC number here.

Simply change the RFC number in the above URL to access the correct
file for your purpose.

Also, for an RFC "Home Page" see
RFC-Info Simplified Help      submitted by: Mark Wallace
Use RFC-Info by sending an email messages to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU.
1.  To get a specific RFC send a message with text as follows:
        Retrieve: RFC   
          Doc-ID: RFC1500
This gets RFC 1500.  All RFC numbers in the Doc-Id are 4 digits 
(RFC 791 would be Doc-ID: RFC0791).
2.  To get a specific FYI send a message with text as follows:
        Retrieve: FYI
          Doc-ID: FYI0004
3.  To get a list of available RFC's that match a certain criteria:
        LIST: RFC
    Keywords: Gateway
Returns a list of RFC's with the word Gateway in the title or
specified as a keyword.
4.  To get information about other ways to get RFCs, FYIs, STDs,
    or IMRs.
        HELP: ways_to_get_rfcs
        HELP: ways_to_get_fyis
        HELP: ways_to_get_stds
        HELP: ways_to_get_imrs
5.  To get help about using RFC-Info:
        HELP: help
        HELP: topics

Other possible sites: - note: avoid using this one, it's SLOW \___ Pacific Rim Sites use these     /
Use anonymous ftp & look for rfc or pub/rfc directories above.
     Details on obtaining RFCs via FTP or EMAIL may be obtained by
     sending an EMAIL message to "rfc-info@ISI.EDU" with the message
     body "help: ways_to_get_rfcs".  For example:
>>        To: rfc-info@ISI.EDU
>>        Subject: getting rfcs
>>        help: ways_to_get_rfcs
You can get a CD ROM with all the RFC's as of the date of the

> 	Info Magic
> 	11950 N. Highway 89
> 	Flagstaff, AZ
>	(800) 800-6613
>	(520) 526-9565
>	Title is 'International & Domestic Standards' ($30)

Mark Aubrey
In Germany and Europe, try Christian Seyb:
     "I also offer a CDROM with all RFC's as of the date 
      of beginning of Aug 93."
The following CDROM is available for DM 98,-- (app. $60) and
contains the following software:
- Linux SLS V1.03, Kernel 0.99.11 and utilities for Linux
- 386BSD version 0.1 including patch-kit 0.2.4
- NetBSD version 0.8
- Utilities for 386BSD and NetBSD
- The Berkely Second Networking Distribution
- GNU software (gcc 2.4.5, emacs 19.17, gmake 3.68, etc)
- X11R5 up to patch 25 and lots of Contributed Software
- TeX version 3.14
- The Internet RFCs up to RFC1493
- News, mail and mailbox software and many utilities for Unix
  Issue: Aug 1993
    CDROM Versand
    Helga Seyb
    Fuchsweg 86
                                Tel: +49-8106-302210
    85598 Baldham               Fax: +49-8106-302310
    Germany                 Bbs/Fax: +49-8106-34593
Christian Seyb  |    |  Mailbox/uucp/Fax: 08106-34593
Aloha and greetings from Cologne, Germany.
Maybe it is interested for you, that the Technical University of Cologne 
has a good script which translate the RFCs into HTML-RFCs.
So you can link between the RFCs and you can get online.

You can try it by using the URL

1.12.00 --SNMP Reference

SUBJECT: What books are there which cover SNMP?


A good source for books on UNIX and on UNIX-related
networking topics (such as SNMP) is:

     Computer Literacy Bookshops, Inc.
     Stores in San Jose, Sunnyvale, Cupertino, CA
     and Vienna, VA.

     (408) 435-5015 x127

     The Simple Book: An Introduction to Managment
     of TCP/IP-based Internets
     by: Marshall T. Rose
     ISBN 0-13-812611-9
     (c) 1991 Prentice-Hall, Inc
     And ...
     The Simple Book: (Second Edition)
     by: Marshall T. Rose
     ISBN 0-13-177254-6
     Prentice-Hall Copyright 1994
     SNMP, SNMPv2 and CMIP: The Practical Guide to
     Network Management Standards
     by: William Stallings
     ISBN 0-201-63331-0
     (c) 1993 Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, Inc
   >>A second printing of
   >>SNMP, SNMPv2, and CMIP:
   >>The Practical Guide to Network Management
     (Addison-Wesley, 1993)
   >>is now in bookstores. A number of errata in the first printing
   >>have been corrected. None of these are "fatal" but they were a
   >>nuisance. For anyone with a first printing, an errata sheet is
   >>available via anonymous ftp in the file SNMP.errata in directory
   >>ftp/pub on

   also, see the URL, below.
SNMP, SNMPv2, SNMPv3, and RMON 1 and 2,
Third Edition
William Stallings

Addison Wesley, 1999,
ISBN 0-201-48534-6

  For more info see:

and note that ...

"This has been updated to include a substantial section (four chapters) on

Bill Stallings
     Network Management: A Practical Perspective
     by: Allan Leinwand & Karen Fang Conroy
     ISBN 0-201-52771-5
     (c) 1993 Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, Inc

   Their Second Edition is ISBN 0-201-609990-1

   Please see:
  or Email to:  or
     Internetworking with TCP/IP (3 Volumes)
     Volume 1: Principles, Protocols, and Architecture
     by: Douglas E. Comer
     ISBN 0-13-468505-9  (Note: 2nd Edition)
     Volume 2: Design, Implementation, and Internals 
     by: Douglas E. Comer and David Stevens
     ISBN 0-13-472242-6
     (c) 1991 Prentice-Hall, Inc
     Volume 3: Client-Server Programming and Applications
     by: Douglas E. Comer and David Stevens
     ISBN 0-13-474222-2  (Note: BSD Socket Version)
     (c) 1993 Prentice-Hall, Inc
     Managing Internetworks with SNMP
     by: Mark A. Miller, P.E.
     ISBN 1-55851-304-3
     (c) 1993 M&T Books, New York, NY
     Open Systems Networking: OSI & TCP/IP
     by: David Piscitello & A. L. Chapin
     ISBN 0-201-56334-7
     (c) 1993 Addison-Wesley
     While largely about OSI, this book contains
     lots of stuff about TCP/IP and SNMP as well.
     Total SNMP
     by: Sean Harnedy
     ISBN  1-878956-33-7
     (c) 1994   CPM Books, 1300 Virginia Drive, 3rd Floor
                Fort Washington, PA 19034

     [Editor's note: The above is out of print. See below]

     Total SNMP 2nd ed. (1998)
     Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-646994-9

     [Editor's note: The 2nd edition does not have the comprehensive
      tabular MIB group descriptions featured in the first edition.]
     How to Manage Your Network using SNMP
     by: Marshall T. Rose & Keith McCloghrie
     ISBN 0-13-141517-4
     (c) 1995 P T R Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
     SNMP: A Guide to Network Management
     by: Sidnie Feit

     McGraw-Hill  ISBN 0-07-020359-8
     SNMP Application Developer's Guide
     by: Robert L. Townsend

     ISBN 0-442-01874-6

     Includes two 3.5" disks with source code!

     Van Nostrand Reinhold
     115 Fifth Ave, NY, NY 10003
     Understanding SNMP MIBs
     by: Perkins and McGinnis

     ISBN 0134377087
     Prentice Hall


     for bookerrata, see
     Windows NT SNMP
     by: James D. Murray

     ISBN 1-56592-338-3


  RMON: Remote Monitoring of SNMP-Managed LANs
  by: David T. Perkins

  ISBN 0-13-096163-9
  Prentice Hall, 1998
<-- SNMP related books  from: Jan-Arendt Klingel
<--    last update 12.06.95

     Communication Network Management, 2nd Edition
	K. Terplan
	Prentice Hall, 1992

     Enterprise Network Management: A Guide to IBM's NetView
	D.M. Peterson
	McGraw-Hill, 1994

     Exploring the Simple Network Management Protocol
	S. Harnedy
	McGraw-Hill, 1994

     The Hands-On Guide to Network Management
	John Mueller, Robert A. Williams
	McGraw-Hill, 1993

     Integrated Network Management
	I. Krishan
	McGraw-Hill, 1993

     Integriertes Netz- und Systemmanagement
	Heinz-Gerd Hegering, Sebastian Abeck
	Addison-Wesley, 1993
	ISBN 3-89319-508-4

     Management von Rechnernetzen
	K. Garbe
	Teubner, 1991

     Managing Internetworks with SNMP
	M.A. Miller
	M&T, 1993

	A. Charley
	Van Nostrand, 1993

     NetView: A Professional Guide to SNA Network Management
	L.D. Trindell
	McGraw-Hill, 1993

     Network Management: A Practical Perspective
	Allan Leinwand, Karen Fang Conroy
	Addison-Wesley 1992/1993
	ISBN 0-201-52771-5

     Network Management
	F.J. Kauffels
	Addision-Wesley, 1992
	ISBN 0-201-56524-X

     Netzwerk-Management: Probleme, Standards, Strategien
	F.J. Kauffels
	Datacom, 1990/1992
	ISBN 3-89238-027-9

     The Simple Book, 2nd. Edition
	Marshall T. Rose
	Prentice Hall 1994
	ISBN 0-13-177254-6

     SNMP, SMP and CMIP: The Practical Guide to Network Management
	W. Stallings
	Addison-Wesley, 1993

     SNMP: Konzepte, Verfahren, Plattformen
	R. Janssen, W. Schott
	Datacom, 1993

     SNMP-2: Simple Network Management Protocol
	D. Griffith, M. Hein
	Addison-Wesley, 1994

     TCP/IP Illustrated, Vol I
	W. Richard Stevens
	Addison-Wesley, 1994
	ISBN 0-201-63346-9

     TCP/IP Illustrated, Vol II
	W. Richard Stevens
	Addison-Wesley, 1995
	ISBN 0-201-63354-X

     The Token-Ring Management Guide
	M. Nemzow
	McGraw-Hill, 1993

     Understanding SNMP MIBs
	David T. Perkins
New books list from Jan-Arendt Klingel:

"1) Simple Network Management Protocol / Version 2
   Mathias Hein, David Griffiths
   644 pages
   Thomson Publishing, 1994
   ISBN 3-929821-51-6

2) Netzwerk-Management
   Paulo Heitlinger
   561 pages
   Thomson Publishing, 1995
   ISBN 3-8266-0117-3

3) Netzwerkmanagement
   Jochen Seitz
   89 pages
   Thomson Publishing/TAT, 1994
   ISBN 3-929821-76-1

4) Internet Systems Handbook
   Part III: Chapter 12: Network Management
   Daniel C. Lynch, Marshall T. Rose
   28 pages
   Addison-Wesley, 1993
   ISBN 0-201-56741-5

Maybe the English version of books 1) and 2) are on"

  [from David Partain]

  A Practical Guide to SNMPv3 and Network Management
  by Dave Zeltserman =

  Prentice Hall, 1999
  ISBN: 0130214531 =

SUBJECT: What periodicals are heavily oriented to SNMP?
     One bi-monthly newsletter is "SIMPLE TIMES".
     You can subscribe via email at
     Use HELP on the Subject line for details. Also try
     For back issues of Simple Times, try
     ConneXions, The Interoperability Report
     480 San Antonio Road, Suite 100
     Mountain View, CA 94040
     Ph: 415-941-3399
     Fx: 415-949-1779
SUBJECT: What classes are available on the topic of SNMP?
     Softbank Forums
     303 Vintage Park Drive
     Foster City, CA 94404
     Network World Technical Seminars
     Ph: 800-643-4668  (direct: 508-820-7493)
     Fx: 800-756-9430

     [Fax back line, ask for document 55]
     Learning Tree International
     1805 Library St
     Reston, VA 22090-9919

     800-843-8733 or 703-709-6405
     American Research Group, Inc.
     PO Box 1039
     Cary, NC  27512

SUBJECT: What email discussion groups are available for SNMP?
SUBJECT: Mailing lists for SNMPv1
"This mailing list is currently being managed with ListProcessor,

Updates to be made include the request address.  It should be:

The subject line is not looked at.  The body of the message should

	subscribe <list> <your email address>

For the snmp list, subscribe to the list by sending a message to:

with a message body of:

	subscribe snmp <emailaccount"

George Smith
SUBJECT: Mailing lists for SNMPv1

"For the snmpv2 list, subscribe to the list by sending a message to:

with a message body of:

        subscribe snmpv2 <emailaccount"

George Smith

SUBJECT: What trade shows cater to SNMP?
   These days nearly every networking trade show in the
   US, and many outside the US, covers the SNMP market.

   The "big name" in internetworking is (their text):
"NetWorld+Interop (the definitive networking event)

Online registration at

Phone registration and customer service: 800-962-6513 and 650-372-7079

Mail registration
c/o ZD Events
PO Box 45295
San Francisco CA 94145-0295"
SUBJECT: What SNMP Product User Groups Are There?

For owners of a run time license to HP OpenView, there
is the the OpenView Forum (a yearly fee is charged).

OpenView users should be directed to the OpenView Forum at their web site:

     Rick Sturm
     Enterprise Management Associates 
     Suite 101
     5360 Manhattan Circle
     Boulder, CO 80303           
     Voice: +1 (303) 543-7304  
     Fax: +1 (303) 543-7687

"You might also want to include a pointer/reference somewhere on your site
for Summit Online.  It's a great resource (check it out).  The URL is"

Rick Sturm

There is an email list for the ovforum.
It is very active (20-40 messages per day).
to submit questions or responses:
To Subscribe:
	I think it's  If you try to subscribe to it will respond with subscription instructions.

Matt Dougherty
SUNNET MANAGER (revised 3/95):

  If you wish to subscribe to snm-people, send a message to


   with no subject, containing only the words:

   subscribe snm-people "Kent F Enders"

   [Editor's note: we assume this should be your name here!]

  If you wish to unsubscribe from snm-people, send the message:

    unsubscribe snm-people

  For more information on using listproc, send the message:

This list is devoted to the issues revolving around the use of the
SunNet Manager Software package.
An anonymous FTP area is set up on Zippy.Telcom.Arizona.EDU as
For those users that do not have access to ftp directly, zippy also
supports ftps by mail.  If you want to try it out send an email
message with the word `help' in the body of the message for some
instructions.  Send that email message to
An archive of the mail messages sent to the list subscribers is
maintained as well. To get an index of these messages send a message
to with a single line message of:
To remove your name from the mailing list send a one line mail message
to  The message should contain the
To receive a list of the commands for the listproc send a message to with a message of:
To send a message to the list send mail to
IBM NetView

There is a NetView User's mailing list (not affiliated or run
by Tivoli) that is a great place to learn about NetView and
ask questions.  Quoting from the nv-l instructions:

 To subscribe to the NV-L list, send mail to LISTSERV@UCSBVM.UCSB.EDU
 (not to NV-L nor NV-L-request), with the single line in the body
 of the note:

   SUBSCRIBE NV-L firstname lastname

 This list is for the discussion of NetView and all related products,
 platforms, usage questions, bugs, and for the dissemination of
 announcements and updates by members of the NetView Association.
 Vendors are welcome to post short announcements of products and/or

You may want to visit the Tivoli NetView web page at:

Also, the IBM NetView "red books" are a good practical
source of information on NetView.  Try


Brett Coley

SUBJECT: Where can I find SNMP-related material on WWW?

it's best if you check out the following www page: it's devoted to
network management and contains an excellent overview and links to
all the different organisations and commitees:

~from: Andreas Weder

[the following www pages have been extracted from 
 elsewhere in this FAQ list ...]
Re: The tkined & scotty network management system:
Re: FTP Software:
Commercial SNMP Software (see also SNMP FAQ Part 2):
"Announce: Networking/Management WWW Site

This on-line material covers networking basics, netware 3.1x 
system administration, network components, API's, remote boot,
security, trouble-shooting, and heaps more.

Included are links to the FAQ's and other resources.

Full access to course notes is provided.

The URL is
Brian Brown

[NOTE: This site is reported missing as of 11/20/98. If
 you know of an update please email]
An SNMP on WWW Encyclopaedia From Bruce Barnett:

SNMP Archives summary. Maintained by Bruce Barnett

"The following are FTP/WEB sites for various packages, information, etc.
I have not used many of these tools, but do try to keep a record of 
locations. They are in no particular order.
If you have any updates/corrections, please let me know. Thanks..."

Bruce Barnett

Last update from Bruce: Jan 26, 1996

[Note: You can see from the above date that many of these
 URLs are now gone or changed. Let us now of any changes.]
	 - network management index
	- "Understanding SNMP MIBS". Rev. 1.1.6 - Perkins, David T
	 - minutes/archives of SNMPv2 working group - Archive of SNMP and SNMPv2 mailing lists.

	improved parser for CMU software
	Another version of the CMU software (some bug fixes) 
	4BSD/ISODE 8.0 SNMPv2 package
	This distribution has moved. 
	One place a copy can be obtained is listed below.

	Questions may be sent to
	Mailing list may be subscribed by sending mail to
	A copy of the 4BSD/ISODE 8.0 SNMPv2 package
	Updated snmpd agent for Sun/Solaris/Solaris-x86
		From sun. (SEE FAQ PART 2)
	SNMP Agent - (Aleksey Y Romanov)
	Bilingual SNMPv1/SNMPv2
	two agents -
		Base agent for all UNIX systems, no MIB-II support
		Second has kernel/driver 
			MIB-II support for TCP/IP Streams systems
	Based on CMU code
	Support for inform requests
	MIBs are in accordance with recent drafts now
	Some unnecessary inheritance from SNMPv2-RFC-based was removed
	Predicable load on a host (no Mallocs)
	Admin model separated from most of code
	Tools to convert MIBS into GDMO 
	UT-SNMPv2 Supports RFC1441-1452. 
		Basic Encoding Rules, 
		Packet Encoding Rules,
		Party MIB, with convenient configuration scripts
		SNMPv1 functionality,
		An API tester,
		and a nice API. 
	Missing the Manager to Manager MIB.
	Written in GNU-C. Tested on SPARC w/ SunOS 5.3 and 4.1.1
	Contact for more information
	There is a WWW server for this: a tcl/tk interface for the 
	UT-SNMP-4_0a package (above)
        CMU SNMP code ported to DOS and Windows.
        The Windows port is WinSock compatible, 
        and includes SNMPTEST and SNMPWALK
        Submitted by Martin Bayreuther 
	RFC's (from The SimpleWeb)

[Ed's Note: The Cavebear seems to have left the cave!]
     Hierarchical Network Management System
     A modular software package which offers compact, informative displays
     of LANs and WANs.  Uses SNMP, ICMP, and layer-2 monitoring.
     Displays use the X Window System and (currently) require Motif.
     This is free, copylefted software.
     send questions to

SEE ALSO - TK/TCL Mib Browser
		used to build graphical SNMP-based applications
       CMU SNMP for linux - CMU SNMP for linux
	tkined and scotty for linux ?
	Perl5 CMU-SNMPv2 Interface by G.S.Marzot(
	 - experimental MIB browser
	More info on scotty, TCL+SNMP - a graphical NMS package
	ASN.1 Resources (Philipp Hoschka, INRIA, France)      
	IETF Home Page     
	Project: Network Management (Free Tcl/Tk NM tools)  
	SNMP:  Tom Georges Usage Paper on CMU SNMP
    RFC's (Internet Request For Comments) 
	- MIB Browser by Subodh Nijsure <>  
	CMU 2.1.2 software for Solaris 2 (SNMPv2). 
	Uses undocumented kernel access procedures CMU SNMP Compiled for linux 
		RMON agent for OS/2, SunOS 4.1.X, & Ultrix 4.1
		Tricklet (Perl-based SNMP tool for Unix or OS/2) - Tricklet-based PERL routines 
	for learning all IP addresses from a LAN 
	(,,, - 
	MIB Browser (needs tricklet) 
	Xmonet network monitoring tools
	(Note: Apparently this host is missing, unreachable. or I have a typo.)
	SMIC -  MIB Compiler 
	MIBS for NT

	 - another site for SMICNG - 
	Public MIBS /pub/snmp/mib.2.2.6/
	 or mib.2.2.1/ - MIBS
	 - MIBS for 3COM devices 
	send mail to for additional help.

	CISCO MIBS CiscoWorks
  	get the README file to get you started (ls doesn't work)
	MIBS for CISCO routers 
	an IP Transaction auditing tool

	MIB-II enhancements to CMU's SNMPv1 API


      for current version
	xsnmp - X-windows based snmp program. 
	Several people have reported an inability to find this.
	SNACC - MIB compiler with MIB-II Macros and C, C++ BER routines.
	various Public MIBS - including NOVELL 
	Version 1.2(Unofficial) CMU SNMP code. MIB-II support*
	Schema and oid for SunNet Manager
	Source of MIBs for DEC products. 
	Tcl/Tk interface to SNMP
	Cabletron MIBS
	Xnetdb "A network database and monitoring tool" by
	X-based network monitoring system with an integrated database which
	uses SNMP and PING to graphically display the state of the network.

	SNMP toolkit
	Mib Compiler
	SimAgent - Agent Simulation for test purposes
	Mib browser
	MIB-II Agent
	mmak-5.2 (multiplatform project manager and makefile generator)
		Supports HP, Sun, Linux, AIX
	Linux port of CMU code
	NOCOL - Network Operations Center OnLine
	From: (Vikas Aggarwal)	
	NOCOL (NOC-On Line) is a network monitoring package for TCP/IP networks.
	Features in 4.0
	 - Unix host performance monitor (hostmon)
	 - SNMP variables monitor for RMON, ciscos, routers, etc. (snmpmon)
	 - Ethernet load and packet rate monitor (etherload)
	 - 'rpcpingmon' for checking status of RPC portmapper
	 - Report generation (via logstats)
	 - Large number of bug fixes and considerably enhanced code
	- IP ICMP monitor (using IP 'multiping')
	- OSI reachability monitor (using OSI ping)
	- RPC portmapper monitor (using 'rpcping')
	- Ethernet load (bandwidth & pps)
	- TCP port monitor
	- Unix host performance (disks, memory, swap, load, nfs, collisions)
	- SNMP variables monitor (RMON, Cisco router, terminal server)
	- TCP data throughput monitor
	- Nameserver (named)
	- SNMP traps
	- Usage of terminal server modem lines (busy lines)
	- Appletalk route monitor (for cisco routers)
	- Novell service monitor
	- BGP peer status 
	- a Tcl/Tk/CMU-based MIB browser by Markus

	WINSOCK & Windows SNMP Information (Bob Natale) 

	.../winsnmp/winsnmp_app contains
         /snmp_pp.doc	;MS Word for Windows 6.0a version
         /	;PostScript version
         /snmp_pp.ww2	;MS Word for Windows 2.0c version

	Also, in the same directory, check out the recent update of the
	WinSNMP.hlp file (Windows help file format)
	WinSNMP/Manager API Specifications:	(various formats)
		/winsnmp.doc	;MS-Word 6.0a
		/winsnmp.ww2	;MS-Word 2.0
		/	;MS PostScript
		/winsnmp.h	;text
		/winsnmp.def	;text

	To join the Windows Sockets (winsock) and Windows SNMP (winsnmp) lists,
	send e-mail:

		Subject:  <leave blank>
		subscribe winsock <your name>
		subscribe winsnmp <your name>
		Another place for information
	WWW starting point for WinSOCK*
	Information regarding EASN.1 (Extended ASN.1 combiler. 
	Note - this is not public domain code. 
	For more info, contact Thomas Uslaender <>
	SNMPv1 implementation in Common Lisp.  Includes an API, a
	simple test client (snmp-netstat) and an SNMP agent for
	Symbolics Lisp Machines.  Currently reads MIB definitions in
	the form created by ISODE SNMP.
	thanks to: (Simon Leinen)
	- source for TCL - used by many tools
	Contains Bill Norton's <> evaluation of NMS platforms
	home page for NMS evaluations..

> The above site is restricted. You get ...
> "The page you attempted to reach is restricted to the Military (.mil)
> and/or Government (.gov) domain(s).  If you are attempting access from a
> non-Air Force network you will not be granted access."
> Mark Aubrey 
	A beginner's introduction to SNMP vs. CMIP OpenView Forum with tutorials on SNMP/IP/MIBs etc Unix OpenView Reviews and Documentation

	SNMP DPI 2.0 (RFC1592) API 
	Code that maps DPI 2.0 onto SMUX
	Works with AIX'"s SMUX-based agents
	contect "Bert Wijnen" <wijnen@VNET.IBM.COM>

Commercial sites:
      "SNMP Research, the World's leading vendor of SNMP development
       Technology: a good, informative site, with various company
       products and technical information."

	Sunsoft Solstice Enterprise Management site: information about 
   	various SUN products, including SUNNET Manager.

[EDITOR'S NOTE: See Part 2 under "Proprietary Software"]

	Empire Technologies Inc. site: Manager and agent applications.
Other information (Commercial, non-SNMP, etc.)
OpenView and NetView solutions HP-OVUA WWW Server Legent A Key Member of HP's Expanded Openview Solution Program InterWorking Labs - SNMP Testing software - MIB Testing Netman Systems MicroMuse Products Home Page 
Source code for Steven's book
COMER source code
	OSIMIS-4.0 is now ready and as already mentioned it is available
	free of charge on a non-commercial basis to all institutions.
	Institutions wishing to obtain it should sign a non-commercial
	licence. The exact procedure is as follows:

	a. send a request to (NOT to this list)
	b. a soft copy of the licence will be sent to you by e-mail
	c. a signed hard copy of the licence should be sent to UCL by snail-mail
	d. as soon as the latter is received, information on FTAM/FTP access
 	   to an encrypted copy and the required decryption key will be 
         sent to you

	OSIMIS-4.0 is substantially enhanced compared to version 3.0
	and has been developed by the RACE ICM and MIDAS projects. A
	description is accessible through WWW:

	From the features described there, conditional packages are not
	yet properly supported. In short, new developments include:
	- a GDMO compiler and an enhanced "plug-in" MO API
	- a high level manager access API (RMIB)
	- object and state management, alarm reporting and metric objects
	- standard event reporting and logging
	- security extensions (authentication and integrity checking)
	- location transparency / discovery service using the OSI directory
	- a full CMIS/P-SNMP generic proxy facility conforming to the 
	  NMF IIMC work
	- a facility to allow management systems to work transparently
	  over simulated network/services
	- various performance/size optimisations
	- interoperability / conformance and many other fixes
	OSIMIS-4.0 needs ISODE-7.0, 8.0 or the ISODE Consortium R1.0
	and can be built using the GNU C++ 2.5.8 and earlier versions
	or the ATT 2.1.  A pre-built version (binaries) for Sun SPARC /
	SunOS 4.1.3 built with gcc/g++ 2.5.8 is also available.
	Operating systems supported are SunOS (not Solaris), AIX and
	There is no new users' manual but enough documentation
	to enable people to use the new features / convert old code.
	Bear in mind that there is NO time/resources to answer support-type
	questions, please refrain from asking.

There exists a UNIX program called "premosy". It extracts a MIB from an
RFC document. It was created by SNMP Research. You can request this
program by sending mail to "" and asking for


Re: perl & SNMP
	There are two solutions: one requires patches to perl, 
	the other (Tricklet, see above) uses an external program.
	Contact for information on his 
	extension/patches to perl for SNMP. It might be available via FTP on*

Re: "The Internet Rover" contact

For more information, get the RFC's on SNMP. (RFC 1441-1452)

>From "Jeffrey T. Johnson" 

The next step is to get all the back issues of The Simple Times.  For
more information on this informative, free publication, send a message
to with a subject of "help"

There is also an online publication dealing with CMIP called CMIP Run.
Backissues are available on the host (
in the directory /pub/protocols/mgmt/cmip/cmip_run, and subscription requests can be sent to  (there are two list, a notification list
to tell you when a new issue is available on the ftp site, and a mail list
to which new issues are actually sent).

There are also several books on the subject, including Rose's "The Simple
Book 2nd Ed." and Stallings' "SNMP, SNMPv2, and CMIP"

	Empire has a trap-exploder, that forwards traps to a list of hosts.
If you would like for Empire to email you the trap-exploder binary for
SunOS 4.1.x, just send email to:

with subject line:  trap-exploder
"QuickGuide to SLAC's Network Monitoring" WAN Monitoring page
	From: (Antonio)

	A pretty cool way to get ASN.1 documents  

~From: Christian Daudt 

To convert a SNMPv2 MIB to SNMPv1 syntax, send the MIB to - NeTraMet

	NeTraMet - the first implementation of the Internet
	Accounting Architecture (outlined in RFC 1272, 
	"Internet Accounting Background") 

--- - mail address of a service that registers object ID's for SNMP purposes.  

For information on SNMP tools - see RFC1470


	Information on a SNMP MIB to IDL translator.
	Also a GDMO/ASN.1 to IDL translator.

Mailing lists: 
	CableTron's Spectrum - send to with the message:
		subscribe spectrum
	OpenView Forum sent mail to - Network Management AD - mailing list for CISCO products
		subscribe - mail to containing 
		subscribe raidmib-l <your address>


		subscribe - mail to containing 
		subscribe isdn-mib <your e-mail address>

	Application MIB
		To subscribe to the list, send a message to:
		In the body of the message place the text:
		  	Subscribe - mailing list for MIB/HTTP

	"A Management  Assessment of the Desktop Management Interface" by (Pearson, Capt Jeffrey)

Bruce Barnett

----------END of Bruce Barnett WEB ENCYCLOPAEDIA-----------

SUBJECT: What related mailing lists exist?

J. Lindsay wrote:

"I have started a mailing list for those interested in web-based network
and systems management.  To subscribe send email to

with an email body of

      "subscribe web-manage <your email address here>"

The most applicable usenet news group is


If you send an "unsubscribe me" message to the list itself
it is almost certain your mail box will overflow with people
flaming you.

The list is open and unmoderated. All requests should go to:

1.12.20 What related newsgroups exist?

Please also visit our cousin newsgroup

There's a discussion group on delphi concerning Enterprise Management.
The areas covered are CA Unicenter, HP OpenView, Tivoli, Platinum Tech,
Enterprise Management,Trade Shows, EM User Groups, Networking Jobs,
Industry Discussion, and General Discussion.

Again, this is focusing on Enterprise Management. There are over 423
members to this forum as of 11/11/98.  You can visit this site at....

Christopher Smiga

1.13.00 --Miscellaneous

SUBJECT: SNMP and Autodiscovery

Posted on the newsgroup:

"Automated topology discovery is a hard problem due to the diversity of deployed
systems and the wide distribution of resource information.  I will briefly
mention some reasons why a ping/traceroute based approach will not work :
subnetting, tunneling, firewalls, virtual LANS.  Your network topology
discovery tool would have to extract more information like subnet masks,
etc and use heuristics for "guessing" the real topology.

I was a teaching assistant for the computer networks course offered in the
spring at Columbia, and assigned the third class project on network topology
discovery.  You may want to refer to the project resources WWW page at the

Alexander V. Konstantinou"


"[...]these are some of the methods that I had used

1. SNMP Broadcast on your local net; all SNMP agents respond
2. Listening for RIP, and OSPF ports, you'll get info on the routers around,
and consequently the different sub-networks connected by this router. If you
need a better discovery you could listen on both IP and IPX ports.
3. ICMP Router interface discovery; this will again give you information on
all the router interfaces (sub-nets)
4. Once you know a sub-net and it's mask (I'm speaking about IP nets) you
could issue an ICMP-echo spray to all the possible IP addresses in that
range, the one's who are alive will respond. But this has to be fine tuned
so that you do not swamp the network with disocvery packets. In case of IPX
you issue an IPX diagnostic message spray (the counterpart of ICMP in Novell
5. You could walk the routing tables (MIB2) and get information about other
routers and sub-nets. You could figure out the type of the sub-net (MAC
layer) by looking up "ifType" for each of the router interfaces.

NOTE: The typical problems you would face is handling unnumbered router
ports, and proxy-ARP issues."

Mohit Tendolkar


I am relatively ignorant about SNMP. However, I have spent a
reasonable amount of effort investigating agents, managers, the
technology, and I have read most of the important RFC's.

There are a bunch of related but simple, practical questions to which
I cannot get a straight answer: Are SNMP traps useful in the real
world? Can you depend on traps being sent across networks? Do agents
repeat traps? How do you select a polling interval if there are traps
you consider very important?

RFC 1215 (the one with the TRAP-TYPE macro) says traps are a bad idea
(well, sort of). RFC 1224 seems to describe a method to acknowledge
SNMP traps and throttle them?

What's the real know, in practice? The real state of the

Shyamal Prasad

Traps are very useful to us. They let us know when a router link goes down,
when network performance is degrading, when a power failure has occurred,
etc. - just to name a few.

You don't poll for traps - the agent just sends the traps to the network
management station(s) you tell it to send them to. Now you can program the
network management station to take automatic action if you so desire. For
example, if one of our ethernet concentrators sends us traps on a
misbehaving port we automatically do some checking and if it is a situation
that could potentially take our whole segment down we automatically
partition the port off of the network. I'm sure this has saved numerous
network outages.

Yes, agents may send repetitive traps. The way you throttle or deal with
them depends on the software you use on your network management station.

All that said - you cannot rely on traps alone. For example, if I die - I
cannot pick up the phone and tell someone that "I am dead". Neither can a
SNMP agent. Therefore it is good to poll the agents periodically just to see
if they are alive and well.

Blaine Owens

SUBJECT:  SNMP and/versus the Web
SNMP MIB Browsers for Web Software
Commercially Available.
     MibMaster, an SNMP to HTML Gateway from Equivalence
     An evaluation version is available free.  A fully-functional
     version can be purchased.
Public Domain.

No data available.
Web Browsers as Network Agents/Managers

No data available.


"If you have a Linux or Windows NT environment check out:

For Java see:"

Carl H. Wist

Other sources:

Hope this helps.

Martin Cooley
Java Classes/Applets/Etc for SNMP
Commercially Available
     Advent Network Management, Inc.

       AdventNet, Inc.
       1090 King Georges Post Road, Suite 405
       Edison, NJ 08837
       Phone: 1-800-470-5959 OR +1-732-738-6669
       Fax    :  +1-732-738-5377

     Note: the above is one place to start, but don't
     forget to search the Web

"Another option for building SNMP agents in Java is Sun's
Java Dynamic Management Kit (JDMK) product.  Take a look at

JDMK is based on Java Beans -- as the agent developer, all you have to
do is to adhere to the Java Beans design patterns in your Java code.
An SNMP MIB compiler is provided that translates an SNMP MIB definition
into Java Beans, you then need to fill in the methods of the generated

Dave Hendricks

     Lots of links to Java sites, developers, code, etc.
Public Domain

From Jan-Arendt Klingel ...

"Beside MIB-Master there is the JaSCA class library (Java SNMP Control  
Applet). The URL is The organisation  
is called Nixu Oy and is located in Finland. One of the three authors is  
Pekka Nikander (

[Note: This site seems to have moved to, is all in Finnish.]

There is a mailing list called "Java Network Management Mailing List" on To subscribe send an email to with a body of "subscribe java-nm". There is not  
so much traffic on the list (maybe because of a bug in the majordomo  

The URL points to some Java stuff  
but I have to check the source first.

A very nice Java tool can be found on  
It's Luca Deris hot application called "Liaison", developed at the IBM  
Research Center in Zurich. There are SNMP and CMIS-agents to query network  
management data.

[Note: Site reported unreachable, 11/20/98]

In the next three months I will hopefully present a network management  
application with Java "droplets". The URL is  
Remember to switch off "lock ports above 1024" at your firewall."

Jan-Arendt Klingel

From "Patrick"

If you are looking for creating SNMP agents in Java, you can look at :

JDMK : contains a mib compiler that creates java (agent) classes from a mib.

JMAPI :  Java Management API (JMAPI)

Java Dynamic Management Kit :

"JMGMT is a java implementation of a SNMP stack.
It also includes source code of examples [of]
how to start writing servlets and an agent with JMGMT.
The JMGMT java classes include packages for

 * the representation of ASN.1 values,
 * BER encoding and decoding of ASN.1 values,
 * the representation of SNMP v1 packets,
 * SNMP I/O with peers and connections,
 * and SNMP exception handling.

2nd public release, now with full source code.

JMGMT is a java implementation of a SNMP v1 stack.

It also includes the complete source code of all classes
and examples how to start writing servlets and an agent with JMGMT.

The JMGMT java classes include packages for =

 * the representation of ASN.1 values, =

 * BER encoding and decoding of ASN.1 values, =

 * the representation of SNMP v1 packets, =

 * SNMP I/O with peers and connections, =

 * and SNMP exception handling. =

The JMGMT classes are free and available for download on

API documentation is online at

Sven Doerr


>I am currently using an SNMP Manager from SNMP Research on a UNIX
>Solaris box and am looking for a CORBA compliant SNMP Manager.  Does
>anyone know of such an animal?

>Dave Stephens

What do you mean when you say "CORBA compliant" SNMP manager?
If you mean that the SNMP manager should provide a CORBA programming
interface you will find some products when you search the internet
for the term "JIDM" (Joint Inter Domain Management).

Werner Poeppel

SUBJECT: SNMP and Visual Basic
Terri Coleman wrote:
> I need to be able to write SNMP Sets and Gets from within a Visual Basic
> application.  Can anyone help?

Maybe this package of ocx's contains what you are looking for
Free trail version for download available.

Bernhard Fischer
LogiSoft AR has SNMPv2 toolkit for Visual Basic that includes SNMP
ActiveX control and utilities supporting v1 and v2c
Look up

Alan Revzin

1.20.00 --General Questions about SNMPv2

SUBJECT: What is SNMPv2?
   SNMPv2 is a revised protocol (not just a new MIB)
   which includes improvements to SNMP in the areas
   of performance, security, confidentiality, and
   manager-to-manager communications.
   SNMPv2 Framework :
   The following RFC's identify the major components of SNMPv2.

   RFC 1441 - Introduction to SNMP v2
   RFC 1442 - SMI For SNMP v2
   RFC 1443 - Textual Conventions for SNMP v2
   RFC 1444 - Conformance Statements for SNMP v2
   RFC 1445 - Administrative Model for SNMP v2
   RFC 1446 - Security Protocols for SNMP v2
   RFC 1447 - Party MIB for SNMP v2
   RFC 1448 - Protocol Operations for SNMP v2
   RFC 1449 - Transoport Mappings for SNMP v2
   RFC 1450 - MIB for SNMP v2
   RFC 1451 - Manager to Manger MIB
   RFC 1452 - Coexistance between SNMP v1 and SNMP v2

Micha Kushner adds:

RFC Number   Title                                   Status
RFC 1901     Introduction to Community-based SNMPv2  Experim Standard
RFC 1902     SMI for SNMPv2                          Draft Standard
RFC 1903     Textual conventions for SNMPv2          Draft Standard
RFC 1904     Conformance statements for SNMPv2       Draft Standard
RFC 1905     Protocol operations for SNMPv2          Draft Standard
RFC 1906     Transport mappings for SNMPv2           Draft Standard
RFC 1907     MIB for SNMPv2                          Draft Standard
RFC 1908     Coexistence between SNMPv1 and SNMPv2   Draft Standard

SUBJECT: What is SNMPv2*/SNMPv1+/SNMPv1.5/SNMP++?
  SNMPv2 had been announced for many months, and most of us assumed that it was
  accepted as the next step up from SNMPv1. That assumption was false.  In fact there
  were several points on which the members of the IETF subcommittee could not agree.
  Primary among them was the security and administrative needs of the protocol.

  Simply put, SNMPv2*/SNMPv1+/SNMPv1.5 is SNMPv2 without the contentious
  pieces, but *with* the stuff everyone agrees is of value.

  You may wish to check
   for more details.


Edward M. Hourigan wrote:
: I keep hearing about SNMP++.  What is it?  Are there any web pages
: describing what it is? 

  I believe there is a Web site with this info at :

  Hope this helps,

	John Silva


The original SNMP++ 2.6 sources can be found at

If you`re looking for a Linux/Solaris/Digital port you might

Frank Fock

[Editor's Note:  See also Part 2: Public Domain SNMP software]

I'd like to announce availability of MG-WinSNMP SDK V1.0b6,
a 32-bit implementation of WinSNMP specification. It is 
available under the shareware license and you are welcome 
to download it from the following URLs:

This release of MG-WinSNMP SDK (wsnmp32.dll, a 32-bit 
winsnmp.dll library) by MG-SOFT Corporation has been 
published in order to gain compatibility with the Revision 
2.5f of SNMP++, an Open Specification for Object Oriented 
Network Management Development Using C++ by Peter Erik 
Mellquist, Hewlett Packard Company.

Matjaz Vrecko

[Editor's Note:  See also Part 2: Public Domain SNMP software]

SUBJECT: What is SNMPv2c?

SNMPv2c is the combination of the enhanced protocol features
of SNMPv2 without the SNMPv2 security. The "c" comes from the
fact that SNMPv2c uses the SNMPv1 community string paradigm
for "security".

SUBJECT: What the heck other SNMPv's are there?


1.22.00 --General Questions about SNMPv3


Refer to

See also:

"I am happy to announce that a SimpleTimes issue on SNMPv3 is now
available from the SimpleTimes Web server:

The journal is available in PostScript and HTML format. New
SimpleTimes issues are announced over a special mailing list.  More
details about the SimpleTimes project and how to subscribe to this
mailing list can be found in the December 1997 issue or on the Web

I hope you all enjoy reading this issue on SNMPv3 and I wish you all
the best for 1998."

Juergen Schoenwaelder

Juergen later added:

"You can find these links and many more on the SNMPv3 web page at:"

Micha Kushner adds:

RFC Number   Title                            Status=PROPOSED
Status = 3D PROPOSED
RFC 2271   An Architecture for Describing SNMP Management Frameworks
RFC 2272   Message Processing and Dispatching for the Simple Network
           Management Protocol (SNMP)
RFC 2273   SNMPv3 Applications
RFC 2274   User-based Security Model (USM) for version 3 of the 
	     Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv3)
RFC 2275   View-based Access Control Model (VACM) for the Simple
	     Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

RFC 2570     Introduction to Version 3 of the Internet-standard Network
             Management Framework  (Status=3DINFORMATIONAL)
RFC 2571     An Architecture for Describing SNMP Management Frameworks
RFC 2572     Message Processing and Dispatching for the Simple Network
             Management Protocol (SNMP)
RFC 2573     SNMP Applications
RFC 2574     User-based Security Model (USM) for version 3 of the
             Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv3)
RFC 2575     View-based Access Control Model (VACM) for the Simple
             Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  Draft      Coexistence between Version 1, Version 2, and Version 3
             of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework

also, for SNMPv3 implementations ...

"See the list on"

Simon Leinen

Bill Stallings writes:

My paper, "SNMPv3: A Security Enhancement to SNMP" published in the 4th
Quarter 1998 issue of the online journal IEEE Communications Surveys, is
now available at
1.30.00 --RMON

  The Remote Network Monitoring MIB is a SNMP MIB for remote
  management of networks.  While other MIBs usually are created to
  support a network device whose primary function is other than
  management, RMON was created to provide management of a network. 
  RMON is one of the many SNMP based MIBs that are on the IETF
  Standards track.
SUBJECT: RMON Standardization Status
  RMON is one of the many SNMP based MIBs that are on the IETF
  Standards track (RFC 1310).  Currently (Jan 94) RMON has two
  instantiations in the IETF standards process.  First, RFC
  1271 - a Proposed Standard, specifies the general structure
  of RMON and the particulars of an Ethernet based RMON agent.
  RFC 1513 - a Proposed Standard specifies the additional RMON
  groups and specifics for a Token Ring network.
SUBJECT: RMON Working Group.
  The RMON Working Group is an IETF Working Group under the Network
  Management Area.  The WG meets periodically - usually at all IETF 
  meetings.  The WG maintains a mailing list for Questions and
  Comments concerning RMON.
    Mail List:  ?

    If no luck there, try

   The group's charter can be found at:
SUBJECT: Joining the RMON Working Group Mailing List
  To join the RMON Working Group mailing list, send mail to:
    Mail List Request:
  DO NOT send a request to join message to the general mailing list.

[Editor's Note: We have received a complaint that this request
 may bounce. The addresses may no longer be active]

    You may also wish to try:

(Thanks to James Stansell for the detective work.)
SUBJECT: Historical RMON Records
  There are copies of the RMON mailing list messages and meeting
  minutes within the IETF archive structure - available at various
  There is also a RMON archive directory which can be accessed via 
  anonymous ftp at:,  directory /pub/rmon
[Editor's Note: We have received a complaint that site no longer exists
 (or, was not at home when someone called). Anyone know if this site remains active?
 Is this the same place as]

  1.  RMON White Paper in  the anonymous ftp directory at  There are two formats: frame and postscript. 
  This paper was developed by members of the RMON working group
  prior to an Interop.  It is a superficial discussion of RMON.
  2.  Chapter 7 in "SNMP, SNMPv2 and CMIP: The Practical Guide to
      Network Management Standards" by William Stallings, (c) 1993
  Addison-Wesley, goes into some detail on the RMON MIB.


RMON2 is an IETF standards track effort.

The IETF RMON working group started on the RMON2 MIB module
back in the fall of 1994. It was published as RFC 2021 in
January 1997. All of the leading probe vendors, including
NetScout, Technically Elite, Solcom, HP, etc have probes
that support it. Also, many of the networking device manufacturers
including Bay Networks and 3Com have embedded RMON2 support
in their products. 

There was an interoperability test summit in December 1997, which
was attended by all of the companies above plus Cisco and

The RMON2 specification is quite stable and ready for advancement
in the standards process. Two additions are in the works to be
published. They are RMON extensions for switches and an RMON
extension for fast networks.

The major difference [between RMON and RMON2] is that RMON provided
statistics only at the data link layer, where as RMON2 provides
statistics at the network and upper layers. 

As to the original questions from Paul Black,

It is difficult to take advantange of all the features in RMON
with generic tools. With RMON2, it is even more difficult.


David T. Perkins [post edited for conciseness]

1.40.00 --ISODE

ISODE (pronounced "eye-so-DEE") is an acronym for "ISO Develoment
Environment".  It is an implementation of SNMP which can be used
as the starting point for further refinement by you. In order to use
it you must agree to the conditions. This quote is from "The Simple Book", 2nd ed.:

"[ISODE] is openly available but is NOT in the public domain. You are
allowed and encouraged to take this software and use it for any lawful
purpose. However, as a condition of use, you are required to hold
harmless all contributors."

Most MIB compilers seen by this editor sprang from ISODE roots.

SUBJECT: Where can I get ISODE?

The old archive was ...
        4BSD/ISODE 8.0 SNMPv2 package
        This distribution has moved.
        One place a copy can be obtained is listed below.
        Questions may be sent to
        Mailing list may be subscribed by sending mail to
        A copy of the 4BSD/ISODE 8.0 SNMPv2 package

SUBJECT: Is there an ISODE  SNMPv2 Mailing List?

Yes.  To subscribe, send email to:

1.50.00 --Using SNMP to Monitor or Manage

SUBJECT:How do I calculate utilization using SNMP?

Brad Harris wrote:

> We are trying to setup T-1 utilization percentage stats using ifInOctets
> and ifOutOctets.


I would suggest:

(DELTA(ifInOctets) + DELTA(ifOutOctets)) * 8
-------------------------------------------- * 100
(DELTA(sysUpTime) / 100) * 1 540 000

where DELTA(attribute) means the difference of the value
of attribute between two polls. Of course, the values for
ifInOctets, ifOutOctets and sysUpTime should be requested
in one single PDU.

Olivier Miakinen

Serial lines (including TDM systems like T1) measure interface
speed as half duplex.  That is, the 1.544 Megabit per second
bandwidth is one way; a full duplex line actually has twice that
value.  1.544 Mb for transmit, 1.544 Mb for receive.  If you want
the "interface utilization", then you would add outOctetcs and
inOctets together, as you did, but use 3088000 for the interface

If you want "line utilization" (which is more valuable for
typical management operations), you could use the "max" value of
in or out Octets, as in the previous example.  This is more
useful, because the line may be at 50% utilization (using your
method) and still be saturated, if all traffic is going one way.

T. Max Devlin

Make sure your time delta doesn't exceed the wrap time the 32 bit MIB2
counters,  ~6 Hrs for T1.  Its a nice touch if ifInOctets and ifOutOctets are
bound in the same PDUs.  Also bind sysUpTime in each PDU so you can detect
agent reload.

Charlie Dellacona

T1 circuits are duplex, you have to have separate
utilisation formulae for both in and out. Otherwise you run the risk of
missing that your heavily utilised in one direction because the other is
very light. In many configurations this is a likely situation, a short
frame requesting data from a server or mainframe resulting in megabytes
heading in the opposite direction.

Wim Harthoorn

To make your figures mean something useful, generate incoming and outgoing 
utilization separately. A T1 link is full-duplex....1.544 Mbps in each
direction. An organizational T1 Internet link will saturate on the incoming 
side while the outgoing side is less than half utilized.  Your formula would 
indicate that the link had some extra bandwidth capability when in reality 
its a major bottleneck.

Gary Flynn

You are missing a few subtleties of getting this exactly right.  What
you want to do is sample (all in one packet exchange) the values of
ifInOctets, ifOutOctets, and sysUptime.  Then, you sample all three
again (after some interval) and use the three deltas to compute:

	-------------------- => Input % utilization

And likewise for output.  Note that there are two factors of 100
folded into the denominator (that's why 154 instead of 1540000), one
since sysUptime is hundredths of a second and the second to get a
percent rather than a fraction.  You could also fold the 8 and 154
together as well, but that's not an integer...  And be sure your Delta
function properly accounts for wrapping.

You should do this periodically, each time computing the deltas from
the previous sample, dropping intervals that are "insane"
(e.g. sysUptime has a large delta [positive or negative] compared to
the wall [or monitoring system] clock).  You will want to compute
_both_ deltas and plot them over time as well as extracting just the
maximum value.  You want a sampling period that's small enough to
really indicate peaks, without being so short it overloads the
monitoring or monitored systems.  If you can, you want to monitor both
ends of the line (ifOutOctets at one end may be greater than
ifInOctets at the other, in which case it's a better measure of load
in that direction).

Michael A. Patton

Dependent on your need for reproduction and historical tracking of the
utilization and other factors such as error rates, you might want to
consider purchasing a performance monitoring and reporting tool to help
you through some of this.

We have a tool for doing precisely what you want, and it also solves for
cases of counter roll-over and sysuptime resets.  Our tool is called
ClearStats and is very economical and flexible.  We have autodiscover
and automated/scheduled reporting. Check us out at

John Catalano

Dan Cox wrote:
> if you look in the rmon mib and look at the description of
> etherstatsoctets it tells you if you
> want to get utilization that you sample etherstatsoctets at two
> intervals and use this formula.  I want someone to explain the formula
> to me.
> Here it is
>                        Packets   *   (9.6 + 6.4) + (Octets * .8)
> utilization =     ------------------------------------------
>                                      Interval  *  10,000
> I assuming this is for 10 mbps ethernet.
> What is the 9.6 and 6.4?
> Why do you need to know the number of packets?
> What formula do you use if you are using 100 mbps ethernet?
> What if it is full-duplex?

In the formula, 9.6 is the interpacket gap time in micro seconds.
6.4 is the preamble+start-frame-delimiter time in micro seconds.
Each time you send a packet, these are present.
The 10,000 is the speed. You change this to 100,000 for 100 Mb/s
For full duplex, the formula is the same, but it applies to
each channel. That is, full duplex is a point-to-point technology.
If you connect nodes A and B. There are essentially two dedicated
and contention free channels, one from from A to B and the other
from B to A. You can compute utilization on each channel.

David T. Perkins

Have a look at for a little
bit of info on calculating utilization statistics. 

Paul Koch

Raja Kolli wrote:

> How do you represent the speed for full-duplex links e.g. full-duplex 10Mb
> ethernet, Should it be 10Mbps or 20Mbps? Or is there any other object (new
> ifType value etc.,) that can be used to represent full-duplex operation?
> Appreciate any pointers on the standrards.

Page 7 of RFC 2358, Definitions of Managed Objects for the Ethernet-like
Interface Types, describes how the ifSpeed object from IF-MIB should be
set for full-duplex ethernet interfaces:

[RFC quote deleted -- go get yourself a copy. Ed.]

So, the answer to your question is that for a full-duplex 10BaseT interface
ifSpeed should be 10Mbps, just as it is for a half-duplex interface.

C. M. "Mike" Heard

SUBJECT: What are Appropriate Operating Thresholds?

>We've just installed brand new PS Hubs and a SSII switch 3300 with SNMP
>capabilities from 3Com, and we're managing it with the Transcend Workgroup
>for Windows 6.0 application. Does anyone know which are the suitable
>thresholds for both hub and switch alarms? Basicly, I'd like to know just
>the more usual : Total errors, FCS errors, alignment errors, broadcast
>packets, runts, collisions, undersize and oversize packets, long and short
> Jorge Alaman~ac

[Editor's Note: T. Max Devlin's response has been edited to fit.
 These out takes are noted by "[...]".]

Suitable thresholds are environmentally sensitive; everybody's "correct"
values area little different.  The best you will get from products or
info sources are more "defaults" than "best guesses", IMHO.  We've found
that the ideal setting for thresholds does not correlate to absolute
numbers, or even typical ranges. [...]

The best approach, seriously, to thresholding is to consider, not some
absolute concept of the perfect network metrics, but the results of the
thresholding.  Essentially, you should look at a simple plot of your
values over a few hours and a few days (baselining), then pick a
threshold value that will result in an "appropriate" number of alerts.
If you want a log-style "this is how many times this happens", you might
want every peak to trip the threshold.  If a more report-oriented "the
occurrences happened at this time", a slightly higher value might be
called for.  "This is a problem, you should know about it even if you
can't 'fix' it" thresholds might trigger a few times a week, and the
"the network is broken; get busy" alerts should essentially be set high
enough so that they never happen under typical network conditions.

The real issue is not what the numbers should be, but how often you want
to know about it. [...]

But just so I don't leave you high and dry, here's some beginning
defaults, if you insist:

Total errors: <2%
FCS errors: <2%
Alignment errors: <1%
broadcast packets: Start with 10%; bring up if you are flooded, bring
                   down if it never triggers
runts: <1%, but some systems might have much larger values under normal
collisions: 10%
undersize and oversize packets: <1%
long and short events: <1%

T. Max Devlin

SUBJECT: Are MIBs available to monitor application traffic?

George Koukoulas  wrote:

: I would like to find out if there are any MIBs about management
: of application traffic, meaning separate management of ftp,
: http, telnet, smtp, etc application traffic.

There are two to-be-published MIBs that may be of interest to you.

The Application Management MIB <draft-ietf-applmib-mib-11.txt> provides
statistics for application or service IO channels. On top of these 
channels, one can have transaction streams with transaction kind 
specific statistics.

The WWW Services MIB <draft-ietf-applmib-wwwmib-11.txt> provides a core
set of statistics for Web services. It is written against an abstract
document transfer protocol. Mappings to FTP and HTTP are defined in the

Both MIBs have been approved by the IESG for publication as Prosposed
Standards. They are currently sitting in the queue of the RFC editor
waiting for publications as RFCs. Both MIBs are the product of the
application management working group.
Juergen Schoenwaelder


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