Section: User Commands (1)
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tree - list contents of directories in a tree-like format.
tree [ -adfgilnopqstuxACDFNS ] [ -L level [ -R ]] [ -H baseHREF ] [ -P pattern ] [ -I pattern ] [ directory ... ]
Tree is a recursive directory listing program that produces a depth
indented listing of files, which is colorized ala dircolors if the LS_COLORS
environment variable is set and output is to tty. With no arguments,
tree lists the files in the current directory. When directory
arguments are given, tree lists all the files and/or directories found
in the given directories each in turn. Upon completion of listing all
files/directories found, tree returns the total number of files and/or
By default, when a symbolic link is encountered, the path that the symbolic
link refers to is printed after the name of the link in the format:
name -> real-path
If the `-l' option is given and the symbolic link refers to an actual
directory, then tree will follow the path of the symbolic link as if
it were a real directory.
Tree understands the following command line switches:
Outputs a verbose usage listing.
Outputs the version of tree.
All files are printed. By default tree does not print hidden files (those
beginning with a dot `.'). In no event does tree print the file system
constructs `.' (current directory) and `..' (previous directory).
List directories only.
Prints the full path prefix for each file.
Makes tree not print the indentation lines, useful when used in conjunction
with the -f option.
Follows symbolic links if they point to directories, as if they were
directories. Symbolic links that will result in recursion are avoided when
Stay on the current file-system only. Ala find -xdev.
- -P pattern
List only those files that match the wild-card pattern. Note: you must use
the -a option to also consider those files beginning with a dot `.' for
matching. Valid wildcard operators are `*' (any zero or more characters), `?' (any
single character), `[...]' (any single character listed between brackets (optional -
(dash) for character range may be used: ex: [A-Z]), and `[^...]' (any single character
not listed in brackets).
- -I pattern
Do not list those files that match the wild-card pattern.
Print the protections for each file (as per ls -l).
- -o filename
Send output to filename.
Print the size of each file along with the name.
Print the username, or UID # if no username is available, of the file.
Print the group name, or GID # if no group name is available, of the file.
Print the date of the last modification time for the file listed.
Append a `/' for directories, a `=' for socket files, a `*' for executable files
and a `|' for FIFO's, as per ls -F
Print non-printable characters in filenames as question marks instead of the default
Print non-printable characters as is instead of the default carrot notation.
Sort the output by last modification time instead of alphabetically.
Turn colorization off always, over-ridden by the -C option.
Turn colorization on always, using built-in color defaults if the LS_COLORS
environment variable is not set. Useful to colorize output to a pipe.
Turn on ANSI line graphics hack when printing the indentation lines.
Turn on ASCII line graphics (useful when using linux console mode fonts).
- -L level
Max display depth of the directory tree.
Recursively cross down the tree each level directories (see -L
option), and at each of them execute tree again adding `-o 00Tree.html'
as a new option.
- -H baseHREF
Turn on HTML output, including HTTP references. Useful for ftp sites.
baseHREF gives the base ftp location when using HTML output. That is, the local
directory may be `/local/ftp/pub', but it must be referenced as
ftp://hostname.organization.domain/pub (baseHREF should be
`ftp://hostname.organization.domain'. Hint: don't use colorization and/or
ANSI lines with this option, and don't give more than one directory in the
/etc/DIR_COLORS System color database.
~/.dircolors Users color database.
LS_COLORS Color information created by dircolors
Steve Baker (email@example.com)
HTML output hacked by Francesc Rocher (firstname.lastname@example.org)
None known. Not heavily tested. Could use a few more options, ala ls.
- SEE ALSO
This document was created by
using the manual pages.
Time: 08:29:10 GMT, August 07, 2002