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Some general commands

Here is a list of some general commands regarding email:


This is a quite user-friendly mailer. You start the program simply with pine The first screen looks like this:

You can move in this screen with the arrows of by pressing the key corresponding to the option you want. The different options are:

To read your new mail go to the "Message Index", with the arrows or by pressing the key i. The typical screen with mail messages looks like this:

Here are some of the commands in this screen:

The default editor of pine is pico; please look in the editors section for more information about it.


elm is a nice mailer, but it is not under serious development any more, being substituted by mutt (see below). The typical screen of elm looks like this:

Here is a list of elm commands:


mutt is a very powerful mailer, that has taken lots of the elm features. Here is a screen shot of mutt:

The key strokes for mutt commands are as follows:


mailx is a very basic mailer, which can be used, for example, when you are in a remote sesion (say with telnet/ssh) when the connection is slow and you do not need fancy features. Here is a shot of a screen with mailx:

And here are the commands:

Bounced mail

When either the local mail server or the remote server has a problem delivering a mail you will get an error message, what I called "bounced mail" First of all, there is a message that comes if your mail has not been delivered in a few hours; that is a warning message and you do not need to do anything (as the messages says) since your mail will be in the queue for quite a longer time (five days is the current default in our system). Other "bounced mails" usually have an explanation of what the problem is; if you do not understand it, please do NOT delete the message but show it to Mr. V. Nandagopal or me (Pablo) so we can see what the problem is and take any action, if required.

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