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Securing Debian Manual
Appendix G - Chroot environment for SSH


Creating a restricted environment for SSH is a tough job due to its dependencies and the fact that, unlike other servers, SSH provides a remote shell to users. Thus, you will also have to consider the applications users will be allowed to use in the environment. If you create this file structure in, for example /var/chroot/ssh, you could start the ssh server chroot'ed with this command:

       # chroot /var/chroot/ssh /sbin/sshd -f /etc/sshd_config

G.1 Automatically making the environment (the easy way)

You can easily create a restricted environment with the makejail package, since it automatically takes care of tracing the server daemon (with strace), and makes it run under the restricted environment.

The advantage of programs that automatically generate chroot environments is that they are capable of copying any package to the chroot environment (even following the package's dependencies and making sure it's complete). Thus, providing user applications is easier.

To set up the environment using makejail's provided examples, just use the command:

       # makejail /usr/share/doc/makejail/examples/sshd.py

Read the sample file to see what other changes need to be made to the environment. Some of these changes, such as copying user's home directories, cannot be done automatically. Also, limit the exposure of sensitive information by only copying the data from a given number of users from the files /etc/shadow or /etc/group.

The following sample environment has been (slightly) tested and is built with the configuration file provided in the package and includes the fileutils package:

     .
     |-- bin
     |   |-- ash
     |   |-- bash
     |   |-- chgrp
     |   |-- chmod
     |   |-- chown
     |   |-- cp
     |   |-- csh -> /etc/alternatives/csh
     |   |-- dd
     |   |-- df
     |   |-- dir
     |   |-- fdflush
     |   |-- ksh
     |   |-- ln
     |   |-- ls
     |   |-- mkdir
     |   |-- mknod
     |   |-- mv
     |   |-- rbash -> bash
     |   |-- rm
     |   |-- rmdir
     |   |-- sh -> bash
     |   |-- sync
     |   |-- tcsh
     |   |-- touch
     |   |-- vdir
     |   |-- zsh -> /etc/alternatives/zsh
     |   `-- zsh4
     |-- dev
     |   |-- null
     |   |-- ptmx
     |   |-- pts
     |   |-- ptya0
     (...)
     |   |-- tty
     |   |-- tty0
     (...)
     |   `-- urandom
     |-- etc
     |   |-- alternatives
     |   |   |-- csh -> /bin/tcsh
     |   |   `-- zsh -> /bin/zsh4
     |   |-- environment
     |   |-- hosts
     |   |-- hosts.allow
     |   |-- hosts.deny
     |   |-- ld.so.conf
     |   |-- localtime -> /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Madrid
     |   |-- motd
     |   |-- nsswitch.conf
     |   |-- pam.conf
     |   |-- pam.d
     |   |   |-- other
     |   |   `-- ssh
     |   |-- passwd
     |   |-- resolv.conf
     |   |-- security
     |   |   |-- access.conf
     |   |   |-- chroot.conf
     |   |   |-- group.conf
     |   |   |-- limits.conf
     |   |   |-- pam_env.conf
     |   |   `-- time.conf
     |   |-- shadow
     |   |-- shells
     |   `-- ssh
     |       |-- moduli
     |       |-- ssh_host_dsa_key
     |       |-- ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
     |       |-- ssh_host_rsa_key
     |       |-- ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
     |       `-- sshd_config
     |-- home
     |   `-- userX
     |-- lib
     |   |-- ld-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- ld-linux.so.2 -> ld-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libc-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libc.so.6 -> libc-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libcap.so.1 -> libcap.so.1.10
     |   |-- libcap.so.1.10
     |   |-- libcrypt-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libcrypt.so.1 -> libcrypt-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libdl-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libdl.so.2 -> libdl-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libm-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libm.so.6 -> libm-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libncurses.so.5 -> libncurses.so.5.2
     |   |-- libncurses.so.5.2
     |   |-- libnsl-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnsl.so.1 -> libnsl-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_compat-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_compat.so.2 -> libnss_compat-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_db-2.2.so
     |   |-- libnss_db.so.2 -> libnss_db-2.2.so
     |   |-- libnss_dns-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_dns.so.2 -> libnss_dns-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_files-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_files.so.2 -> libnss_files-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_hesiod-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_hesiod.so.2 -> libnss_hesiod-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_nis-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_nis.so.2 -> libnss_nis-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_nisplus-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libnss_nisplus.so.2 -> libnss_nisplus-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libpam.so.0 -> libpam.so.0.72
     |   |-- libpam.so.0.72
     |   |-- libpthread-0.9.so
     |   |-- libpthread.so.0 -> libpthread-0.9.so
     |   |-- libresolv-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libresolv.so.2 -> libresolv-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- librt-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- librt.so.1 -> librt-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libutil-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libutil.so.1 -> libutil-2.2.5.so
     |   |-- libwrap.so.0 -> libwrap.so.0.7.6
     |   |-- libwrap.so.0.7.6
     |   `-- security
     |       |-- pam_access.so
     |       |-- pam_chroot.so
     |       |-- pam_deny.so
     |       |-- pam_env.so
     |       |-- pam_filter.so
     |       |-- pam_ftp.so
     |       |-- pam_group.so
     |       |-- pam_issue.so
     |       |-- pam_lastlog.so
     |       |-- pam_limits.so
     |       |-- pam_listfile.so
     |       |-- pam_mail.so
     |       |-- pam_mkhomedir.so
     |       |-- pam_motd.so
     |       |-- pam_nologin.so
     |       |-- pam_permit.so
     |       |-- pam_rhosts_auth.so
     |       |-- pam_rootok.so
     |       |-- pam_securetty.so
     |       |-- pam_shells.so
     |       |-- pam_stress.so
     |       |-- pam_tally.so
     |       |-- pam_time.so
     |       |-- pam_unix.so
     |       |-- pam_unix_acct.so -> pam_unix.so
     |       |-- pam_unix_auth.so -> pam_unix.so
     |       |-- pam_unix_passwd.so -> pam_unix.so
     |       |-- pam_unix_session.so -> pam_unix.so
     |       |-- pam_userdb.so
     |       |-- pam_warn.so
     |       `-- pam_wheel.so
     |-- sbin
     |   `-- start-stop-daemon
     |-- usr
     |   |-- bin
     |   |   |-- dircolors
     |   |   |-- du
     |   |   |-- install
     |   |   |-- link
     |   |   |-- mkfifo
     |   |   |-- shred
     |   |   |-- touch -> /bin/touch
     |   |   `-- unlink
     |   |-- lib
     |   |   |-- libcrypto.so.0.9.6
     |   |   |-- libdb3.so.3 -> libdb3.so.3.0.2
     |   |   |-- libdb3.so.3.0.2
     |   |   |-- libz.so.1 -> libz.so.1.1.4
     |   |   `-- libz.so.1.1.4
     |   |-- sbin
     |   |   `-- sshd
     |   `-- share
     |       |-- locale
     |       |   `-- es
     |       |       |-- LC_MESSAGES
     |       |       |   |-- fileutils.mo
     |       |       |   |-- libc.mo
     |       |       |   `-- sh-utils.mo
     |       |       `-- LC_TIME -> LC_MESSAGES
     |       `-- zoneinfo
     |           `-- Europe
     |               `-- Madrid
     `-- var
         `-- run
             |-- sshd
             `-- sshd.pid
     
     27 directories, 733 files

G.2 Patching SSH to enable chroot functionality

Debian's sshd does not allow restriction of a user's movement through the server, since it lacks the chroot function that the commercial program sshd2 includes (using 'ChrootGroups' or 'ChrootUsers', see sshd2_config(5)). However, there is a patch available to add this functionality available from Bug report 139047 The patch may be included in future releases of the OpenSSH package. Emanuel Lacour has ssh deb packages with this feature at http://debian.home-dn.net/woody/ssh/. Completing the compilation step is recommended, though.

A description of all the necessary steps can be found at http://mail.incredimail.com/howto/openssh/ (though it is aimed at RedHat 7.2 users, almost all of them are applicable to Debian). After applying the patch, modify /etc/passwd by changing the home path of the users (with the special /./ token):

       joeuser:x:1099:1099:Joe Random User:/home/joe/./:/bin/bash

This will restrict both remote shell access, as well as remote copy through the ssh channel.

Make sure to have all the needed binaries and libraries in the chroot'ed path for users. These files should be owned by root to avoid tampering by the user (so as to exit the chroot'ed jailed). A sample might include:

     ./bin:
     total 660
     drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Mar 18 13:36 .
     drwxr-xr-x    8 guest    guest        4096 Mar 15 16:53 ..
     -r-xr-xr-x    1 root     root       531160 Feb  6 22:36 bash
     -r-xr-xr-x    1 root     root        43916 Nov 29 13:19 ls
     -r-xr-xr-x    1 root     root        16684 Nov 29 13:19 mkdir
     -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        23960 Mar 18 13:36 more
     -r-xr-xr-x    1 root     root         9916 Jul 26  2001 pwd
     -r-xr-xr-x    1 root     root        24780 Nov 29 13:19 rm
     lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            4 Mar 30 16:29 sh -> bash
     
     ./etc:
     total 24
     drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Mar 15 16:13 .
     drwxr-xr-x    8 guest    guest        4096 Mar 15 16:53 ..
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root           54 Mar 15 13:23 group
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root          428 Mar 15 15:56 hosts
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root           44 Mar 15 15:53 passwd
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root           52 Mar 15 13:23 shells
     
     ./lib:
     total 1848
     drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Mar 18 13:37 .
     drwxr-xr-x    8 guest    guest        4096 Mar 15 16:53 ..
     -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        92511 Mar 15 12:49 ld-linux.so.2
     -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root      1170812 Mar 15 12:49 libc.so.6
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        20900 Mar 15 13:01 libcrypt.so.1
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root         9436 Mar 15 12:49 libdl.so.2
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root       248132 Mar 15 12:48 libncurses.so.5
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        71332 Mar 15 13:00 libnsl.so.1
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        34144 Mar 15 16:10
     libnss_files.so.2
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        29420 Mar 15 12:57 libpam.so.0
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root       105498 Mar 15 12:51 libpthread.so.0
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        25596 Mar 15 12:51 librt.so.1
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root         7760 Mar 15 12:59 libutil.so.1
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        24328 Mar 15 12:57 libwrap.so.0
     
     ./usr:
     total 16
     drwxr-xr-x    4 root     root         4096 Mar 15 13:00 .
     drwxr-xr-x    8 guest    guest        4096 Mar 15 16:53 ..
     drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Mar 15 15:55 bin
     drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Mar 15 15:37 lib
     
     ./usr/bin:
     total 340
     drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Mar 15 15:55 .
     drwxr-xr-x    4 root     root         4096 Mar 15 13:00 ..
     -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        10332 Mar 15 15:55 env
     -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        13052 Mar 15 13:13 id
     -r-xr-xr-x    1 root     root        25432 Mar 15 12:40 scp
     -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        43768 Mar 15 15:15 sftp
     -r-sr-xr-x    1 root     root       218456 Mar 15 12:40 ssh
     -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root         9692 Mar 15 13:17 tty
     
     ./usr/lib:
     total 852
     drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Mar 15 15:37 .
     drwxr-xr-x    4 root     root         4096 Mar 15 13:00 ..
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root       771088 Mar 15 13:01
     libcrypto.so.0.9.6
     -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        54548 Mar 15 13:00 libz.so.1
     -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        23096 Mar 15 15:37 sftp-server

G.3 Handmade environment (the hard way)

It is possible to create an environment, using a trial-and-error method, by monitoring the sshd server traces and log files in order to determine the necessary files. The following environment, contributed by José Luis Ledesma, is a sample listing of files in a chroot environment for ssh: [52]

     .:
     total 36
     drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Jun 5 10:05 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 11 root root 4096 Jun 3 13:43 ../
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:13 bin/
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:16 dev/
     drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:35 etc/
     drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:13 lib/
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:35 sbin/
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:32 tmp/
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:16 usr/
     ./bin:
     total 8368
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:13 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Jun 5 10:05 ../
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 109855 Jun 3 13:45 a2p*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 387764 Jun 3 13:45 bash*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36365 Jun 3 13:45 c2ph*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 20629 Jun 3 13:45 dprofpp*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6956 Jun 3 13:46 env*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 158116 Jun 3 13:45 fax2ps*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 104008 Jun 3 13:45 faxalter*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 89340 Jun 3 13:45 faxcover*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 441584 Jun 3 13:45 faxmail*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 96036 Jun 3 13:45 faxrm*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 107000 Jun 3 13:45 faxstat*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 77832 Jun 4 11:46 grep*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 19597 Jun 3 13:45 h2ph*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 46979 Jun 3 13:45 h2xs*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 10420 Jun 3 13:46 id*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4528 Jun 3 13:46 ldd*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 111386 Jun 4 11:46 less*
     -r-xr-xr-x 1 root root 26168 Jun 3 13:45 login*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 49164 Jun 3 13:45 ls*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11600 Jun 3 13:45 mkdir*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24780 Jun 3 13:45 more*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 154980 Jun 3 13:45 pal2rgb*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 27920 Jun 3 13:46 passwd*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4241 Jun 3 13:45 pl2pm*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2350 Jun 3 13:45 pod2html*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7875 Jun 3 13:45 pod2latex*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 17587 Jun 3 13:45 pod2man*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6877 Jun 3 13:45 pod2text*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3300 Jun 3 13:45 pod2usage*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3341 Jun 3 13:45 podchecker*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2483 Jun 3 13:45 podselect*
     -r-xr-xr-x 1 root root 82412 Jun 4 11:46 ps*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36365 Jun 3 13:45 pstruct*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7120 Jun 3 13:45 pwd*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 179884 Jun 3 13:45 rgb2ycbcr*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 20532 Jun 3 13:45 rm*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6720 Jun 4 10:15 rmdir*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 14705 Jun 3 13:45 s2p*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 28764 Jun 3 13:46 scp*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 385000 Jun 3 13:45 sendfax*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 67548 Jun 3 13:45 sendpage*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 88632 Jun 3 13:46 sftp*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 387764 Jun 3 13:45 sh*
     -rws--x--x 1 root root 744500 Jun 3 13:46 slogin*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 14523 Jun 3 13:46 splain*
     -rws--x--x 1 root root 744500 Jun 3 13:46 ssh*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 570960 Jun 3 13:46 ssh-add*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 502952 Jun 3 13:46 ssh-agent*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 575740 Jun 3 13:46 ssh-keygen*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 383480 Jun 3 13:46 ssh-keyscan*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 39 Jun 3 13:46 ssh_europa*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 107252 Jun 4 10:14 strace*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 8323 Jun 4 10:14 strace-graph*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 158088 Jun 3 13:46 thumbnail*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6312 Jun 3 13:46 tty*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 55904 Jun 4 11:46 useradd*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 585656 Jun 4 11:47 vi*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6444 Jun 4 11:45 whoami*
     ./dev:
     total 8
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:16 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Jun 5 10:05 ../
     crw-r--r-- 1 root root 1, 9 Jun 3 13:43 urandom
     ./etc:
     total 208
     drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:35 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Jun 5 10:05 ../
     -rw------- 1 root root 0 Jun 4 11:46 .pwd.lock
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 653 Jun 3 13:46 group
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 242 Jun 4 11:33 host.conf
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 857 Jun 4 12:04 hosts
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1050 Jun 4 11:29 ld.so.cache
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 304 Jun 4 11:28 ld.so.conf
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 235 Jun 4 11:27 ld.so.conf~
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 88039 Jun 3 13:46 moduli
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1342 Jun 4 11:34 nsswitch.conf
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:02 pam.d/
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 28 Jun 4 12:00 pam_smb.conf
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2520 Jun 4 11:57 passwd
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7228 Jun 3 13:48 profile
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1339 Jun 4 11:33 protocols
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 274 Jun 4 11:44 resolv.conf
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 3 13:43 security/
     -rw-r----- 1 root root 1178 Jun 4 11:51 shadow
     -rw------- 1 root root 80 Jun 4 11:45 shadow-
     -rw-r----- 1 root root 1178 Jun 4 11:48 shadow.old
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 161 Jun 3 13:46 shells
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1144 Jun 3 13:46 ssh_config
     -rw------- 1 root root 668 Jun 3 13:46 ssh_host_dsa_key
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 602 Jun 3 13:46 ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
     -rw------- 1 root root 527 Jun 3 13:46 ssh_host_key
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 331 Jun 3 13:46 ssh_host_key.pub
     -rw------- 1 root root 883 Jun 3 13:46 ssh_host_rsa_key
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 222 Jun 3 13:46 ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2471 Jun 4 12:15 sshd_config
     ./etc/pam.d:
     total 24
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:02 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:35 ../
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 4 Jun 4 12:02 other -> sshd
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 318 Jun 3 13:46 passwd
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 546 Jun 4 11:36 ssh
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 479 Jun 4 12:02 sshd
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 370 Jun 3 13:46 su
     ./etc/security:
     total 32
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 3 13:43 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:35 ../
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1971 Jun 3 13:46 access.conf
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 184 Jun 3 13:46 chroot.conf
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2145 Jun 3 13:46 group.conf
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1356 Jun 3 13:46 limits.conf
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2858 Jun 3 13:46 pam_env.conf
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2154 Jun 3 13:46 time.conf
     ./lib:
     total 8316
     drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:13 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Jun 5 10:05 ../
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1024 Jun 4 11:51 cracklib_dict.hwm
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 214324 Jun 4 11:51 cracklib_dict.pwd
     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 11360 Jun 4 11:51 cracklib_dict.pwi
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 342427 Jun 3 13:46 ld-linux.so.2*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4061504 Jun 3 13:46 libc.so.6*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Jun 4 12:11 libcrack.so -> libcrack.so.2.7*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Jun 4 12:11 libcrack.so.2 -> libcrack.so.2.7*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 33291 Jun 4 11:39 libcrack.so.2.7*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 60988 Jun 3 13:46 libcrypt.so.1*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 71846 Jun 3 13:46 libdl.so.2*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 27762 Jun 3 13:46 libhistory.so.4.0*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 17 Jun 4 12:12 libncurses.so.4 -> libncurses.so.4.2*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 503903 Jun 3 13:46 libncurses.so.4.2*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 17 Jun 4 12:12 libncurses.so.5 -> libncurses.so.5.0*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 549429 Jun 3 13:46 libncurses.so.5.0*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 369801 Jun 3 13:46 libnsl.so.1*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 142563 Jun 4 11:49 libnss_compat.so.1*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 215569 Jun 4 11:49 libnss_compat.so.2*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 61648 Jun 4 11:34 libnss_dns.so.1*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 63453 Jun 4 11:34 libnss_dns.so.2*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 63782 Jun 4 11:34 libnss_dns6.so.2*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 205715 Jun 3 13:46 libnss_files.so.1*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 235932 Jun 3 13:49 libnss_files.so.2*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 204383 Jun 4 11:33 libnss_nis.so.1*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 254023 Jun 4 11:33 libnss_nis.so.2*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 256465 Jun 4 11:33 libnss_nisplus.so.2*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 14 Jun 4 12:12 libpam.so.0 -> libpam.so.0.72*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 31449 Jun 3 13:46 libpam.so.0.72*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 Jun 4 12:12 libpam_misc.so.0 ->
     libpam_misc.so.0.72*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 8125 Jun 3 13:46 libpam_misc.so.0.72*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Jun 4 12:12 libpamc.so.0 -> libpamc.so.0.72*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 10499 Jun 3 13:46 libpamc.so.0.72*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 176427 Jun 3 13:46 libreadline.so.4.0*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 44729 Jun 3 13:46 libutil.so.1*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 70254 Jun 3 13:46 libz.a*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 Jun 4 12:13 libz.so -> libz.so.1.1.3*
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 Jun 4 12:13 libz.so.1 -> libz.so.1.1.3*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 63312 Jun 3 13:46 libz.so.1.1.3*
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:00 security/
     ./lib/security:
     total 668
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:00 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:13 ../
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 10067 Jun 3 13:46 pam_access.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 8300 Jun 3 13:46 pam_chroot.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 14397 Jun 3 13:46 pam_cracklib.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5082 Jun 3 13:46 pam_deny.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 13153 Jun 3 13:46 pam_env.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 13371 Jun 3 13:46 pam_filter.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7957 Jun 3 13:46 pam_ftp.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 12771 Jun 3 13:46 pam_group.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 10174 Jun 3 13:46 pam_issue.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 9774 Jun 3 13:46 pam_lastlog.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 13591 Jun 3 13:46 pam_limits.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11268 Jun 3 13:46 pam_listfile.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11182 Jun 3 13:46 pam_mail.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5923 Jun 3 13:46 pam_nologin.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5460 Jun 3 13:46 pam_permit.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 18226 Jun 3 13:46 pam_pwcheck.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 12590 Jun 3 13:46 pam_rhosts_auth.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5551 Jun 3 13:46 pam_rootok.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7239 Jun 3 13:46 pam_securetty.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6551 Jun 3 13:46 pam_shells.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 55925 Jun 4 12:00 pam_smb_auth.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 12678 Jun 3 13:46 pam_stress.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11170 Jun 3 13:46 pam_tally.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11124 Jun 3 13:46 pam_time.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 45703 Jun 3 13:46 pam_unix.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 45703 Jun 3 13:46 pam_unix2.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 45386 Jun 3 13:46 pam_unix_acct.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 45386 Jun 3 13:46 pam_unix_auth.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 45386 Jun 3 13:46 pam_unix_passwd.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 45386 Jun 3 13:46 pam_unix_session.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 9726 Jun 3 13:46 pam_userdb.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6424 Jun 3 13:46 pam_warn.so*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7460 Jun 3 13:46 pam_wheel.so*
     ./sbin:
     total 3132
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:35 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Jun 5 10:05 ../
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 178256 Jun 3 13:46 choptest*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 184032 Jun 3 13:46 cqtest*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 81096 Jun 3 13:46 dialtest*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1142128 Jun 4 11:28 ldconfig*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2868 Jun 3 13:46 lockname*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3340 Jun 3 13:46 ondelay*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 376796 Jun 3 13:46 pagesend*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 13950 Jun 3 13:46 probemodem*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 9234 Jun 3 13:46 recvstats*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 64480 Jun 3 13:46 sftp-server*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 744412 Jun 3 13:46 sshd*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 30750 Jun 4 11:46 su*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 194632 Jun 3 13:46 tagtest*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 69892 Jun 3 13:46 tsitest*
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 43792 Jun 3 13:46 typetest*
     ./tmp:
     total 8
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:32 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Jun 5 10:05 ../
     ./usr:
     total 8
     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 4 12:16 ./
     drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 4096 Jun 5 10:05 ../
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Jun 4 12:14 bin -> ../bin//
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Jun 4 11:33 lib -> ../lib//
     lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 8 Jun 4 12:13 sbin -> ../sbin//

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Securing Debian Manual

2.99 18 April 2004Wed, 3 Mar 2004 09:18:54 +0100

Javier Fernández-Sanguino Peña jfs@computer.org